Tuesday, April 1, 2008

Second meeting

Second meeting discussion the exhibition is tomorrow, Wednesday, at 13.00 at the office!

See you there!


Sunday, March 30, 2008


On the last day pf the course we discussed a bit about the different possibilities there are for the exebitions, and now we are meeting next wednesday 10:00am in 106 to discuss further. If you are interested in exhebit your project come!
There are so far 2 possibilities as i remember: one in Lomma library and the other in Form Design center in Malmö!
(Fredrik was not sure about the time to meet on wednesday because of the L.Architecture day, but he will let us know about changes)

Wednesday, March 12, 2008

New places for presentations !!!!!

"Project 4- Landscape Planning for a Sustainable Development" and "Urban Forestry & Urban Greening" are this year named WATERWORLD.

>>WATERWORLD is a communication project, but also a design project.
- What if the water level rose 1 meter?
- Draft for a vision for the Oresund region Final pinup 13-14 mars in Gamla Aulan and Sal 107.


>>Thursday 13 mars, Gamla Aulan
09.30 Adam, Saltholm
10.00 Maria, Xristina, Höje Å
10.50 Kristina, Sandra, Saltholm
11.20 Duane, Garret, Muhammed, Sylvanus, Höje Å
13.30 Sonja, Berenike, Monika, Höje Å
14.00 Ola, Daniel, Camilla, Jenna, Refshaleøen
14.50 Liane, Sarah, Delphine, Näset (Skanör-Falsterbo)
15.20 Maria, Fanny, Höje Å

>>Friday 14 mars, Sal 107
09.30 Dagmar, Saltholm
10.00 Angela, Martina, Höje Å
10.50 Maja, Saltholm
11.20 Concluding discussion
13.00 Discussions at the Office. We’ll talk about future exhibitions and projects.
14.00 Course evaluation in computer room Magasinet

>>Planning with water in mind
Water is crucial for planning. We live through water, and by the water.
Our organism consists of 80% water and we need new water to survive.
Plants need water to grow as part of the eco system, and crops need it in
order to make it to our dinner tables.

>>In the course WATERWORLD we have focused on water issues as an entrance
for Planning as communication, Planning as dialogue, Planning as
negotiation, Planning as non-planning.
And used water as organizational element while asking the questions:
Climate changes ­ how can we work with rising water levels?
Water front urbanism ­ how to build by the water?

>>We can call it visionary urbanism. The purpose is not just to show your
capacity to handle design processes but also to trigger the imagination of the beholder!

>>Water has been considered as the framework for our common efforts during
>>the course.


Friday, March 7, 2008

stormwater channels in Lund

Ingela Andersson has made an interesting proposal for stormwater channeling and catchment in central Lund to the recipent Höje å. It comprises of both open and culverted passages. Andersson, a former student at Alnarp made these proposals as a final project in 1995. The project is composed of a 50/50 drawings and text, so even if it is written in Swedish you'll get a good understanding of her objectives. Interesting. She concludes with a summary in English however. You will find her project in the library in Alnarp.

'Regnvatten som stadsbyggnadselement - en idé om hur dagvatten från lasarettsområdet i Lund skulle kunna färdas genom staden ner till Höje å'

Tuesday, March 4, 2008

Final pinup

You have 10 minutes to present your project, then 20 minutes for questions and discussion. This means that the longer you present, the less feedback you will get! Gunilla Lindholm, Roland Gustavsson, Fredrik Fritzson and Sabina Jallow will participate in the final pinup. If you have powerpoint or pdf-files please upload them on the computer before it is your turn. The computers will be available from 09.15 both days. If you have other material, as posters, other printed material or models, make sure that you can easily put them up so we don’t loose time when we change groups.

Thursday, Crawfordsalen
09.30 Adam, Saltholm
10.00 Maria, Xristina, Höje Å

10.50 Kristina, Sandra, Saltholm
11.20 Duane, Garret, Muhammed, Sylvanus, Höje Å


13.30 Sonja, Berenike, Monika, Höje Å
14.00 Ola, Daniel, Camilla, Jenna, Refshaleøen

14.50 Liane, Sarah, Delphine, Näset (Skanör-Falsterbo)
15.20 Maria, Fanny, Höje Å

Friday, Gamla aulan
09.30 Dagmar, Saltholm
10.00 Angela, Martina, Höje Å

10.50 Maja, Saltholm
11.20 Concluding discussion

Additional work
If your project is on the limit of passing the course, we might ask you to make some supplementations, i.e. some additional work on the project. You will be noticed the Monday after the course is finished if you have passed.

Apart from the presentation you make, we want from you:

Eight pages in laying A4-format describing your project in text, diagrams, drawings and images. The pages have to have print quality (300 dpi) and be layouted for a booklet, i.e. interesting and readable. Check spelling and language!

One text of 100 words with your project’s name, and a description of your project. Make it interesting! Think of it as an introduction for an exhibition with your project. Deliver on the student server (we make a special folder for this) Name your file with your names, for example sabina_fredrik.doc

One image in laying A3-format (420 x 297 mm) in 300 dpi from your project. It can be a plan, collage, rendering, drawing or model photo - a picture that can communicate your project visually! Deliver on the student server (we make a special folder for this) Name your file the same way, for example sabina_fredrik.jpg.

An evaluation of the course. During Friday afternoon you will do the evaluation in one of the computer rooms. You will evaluate all parts of the course. The evaluation will be the fundament for the planning of next year’s course.

The eight pages + text and image can be delivered the week after the final presentation.

Pinup Friday 7th of March

This time we want you to deliver a plan for your final presentation to get an understanding for how you will communicate your project. This means that if you want to present with posters in your final presentation, then present a layout for these, showing what material you will include in you presentation. If you have models or other physical material please include sketches or photos of how they will look. Digital presentations or movies should be presented as storyboards, i.e. describing each slide or scene. Deliver your material as laying A3-papers, stapled if you have more than one paper.

Make it clear and simple! Don't spend time on colour or layout this time.

Leave your presentations in the office at 17.00 on Friday.

Visual presentation consultation

At thursday 6th of mars Juan Carlos Peirone will be in 160, 13.30-16.45, to help out with presentation technices, lay out etc. We made 5 possible appointments to start with.


Monday, March 3, 2008

Rising sea-levels in Skåne

"Länsstyrelsen" have made a report about rising sea-levels in Skåne. You find it as a PDF at their webpage: http://www.m.lst.se/m/amnen/Samhallsplanering/Aktuella_planeringsfragor/Stigande_havsnivaer.htm.

To translate swedish into english you can always use the webpage www.tyda.se.


Sunday, March 2, 2008

Some interesting links:

The ASCCUE (Adapting Stratetgies for Climate Change in the Urban Environment) -project. A scheme funded by the EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) in the UK with collaborators form the University of Manchester. The research aimed at clarifying the role that greenspace network can play in adapting for climate change in urbanised areas. With a 10% increase of green spaces in urban conurbations, surface temperature will drop by 4C - hence 'climate proofing' towns and cities. As climate change predicts severe draught periods in summer, new consideration of waterstorage for supply and irrigation is necessary. The study also touches on the increase of winter flooding and increased precipitation. See more of the report at: www.terradaily.com/reports and www.epsrc.ac.uk

Interesting information on daylighting of subterranean watercourses:GOOGLE ' Daylighting: New Life for Buried Streams' R. Pinkham. Daylighting projects in Seattle, New York and Berkely, California to mention a few. Quite facinating!

Product and method information on SUDS (Sustainabel Drainage Systems) www.ciria.org
and GOOGLE 'Street Edge Alternatives' .

At the moment I am researching subterranean rivulets in the town of Lund and the potential role the could play in flash flooding scenarios/runoff increase. I'll keep information posted on the subject from next week.

Thursday, February 28, 2008

Pin-up friday

10.25 Kristine, Maria
10.50 Dagmar
11.15 Angela, Martina
11.30 Duane, Garret, Sylvanus, Muhammed
13.30 Maja
13.55 Fanny, Maria
14.20 Jenna, Camilla, Daniel, Ola
15.00 Sonja, Monika, Berenike
15.25 Liene, Sarah, Delphine
15.50 Sandra, Kristina

Since the lecture has been canceled, use the time until 10.25 to prepare your presentation.

NO lecture friday 08.00

Anders Larsson has called in sick!

See you at 10.00 for PIN-UP.

Wednesday, February 27, 2008


An article from Harward Design Magazine called Design for Rising Sea Levels by Jonathan Barnet and Kristina Hill is available in the office now. Read it and let's discuss it next week!


The lecture on friday by Anders Larsson will start 08.30 instead of 08.00. Then we continue with pin-up after the break.

There are no list of things you should include in the pin-up. Just think about it as a presentation for someone who hasn't been introduced to the project before.

Friday, February 22, 2008

Wednesday, February 20, 2008

Pin-up friday!

This friday we want you to hand in a paper presentation. So far you have presented a lot of interesting text, pictures and diagrams. But now is the time to make use of all the traditional techniques you know from your education so far. Scaled plans and sections, perspectives, axonometries making you understanding your sites by drawing them. Make the information you gathered your own!


Refshaleöen: Plan of the whole peninsula, plan of it's location in relation to other parts of Copenhagen, Sections through the peninsula, plan of different uses today...

Saltholm: Plan of the island in oresund, plan of the island in appropriate scale, sections...

Skanör/Falsterbo: Plan of the site in relation to Malmö/Öresund, plan of the peninsula in appropriate scale, sections through the peninsula...

Höje Å: Plan of the entire Höje Å in appropriate scale. Sections through different landscapes where you work...

Don't be afraid to make big drawings! Sections could be a meter long or more!

If the drawings mentioned above do not fit into your project at all, please mail Sabina or Fredrik and we will discuss your pin-up.

Deadline: Friday 17.00. Place your things on the table in the office.

And of course, you should include all other info about your project, how far you've come and what you plan to do!

Sabina and Fredrik

Literature Seminar 21/2 9.00

We will discuss the text from “The Landscape Urbanism Reader” Thursday 21 feb, 09.00 at the office/room 160.

- Acknowledgement, by Charles Waldheim
- Landscape as Urbanism, by Charles Waldheim
- Landscape of Exchnge: Re-articulating Site, by Clare Lyster

Sunday, February 17, 2008

"Green architecture" on TV tonight

Check out svt 1 tonight at 22.40, there will be a program about future"green architecture". Ken Yeang and others will be interviewed../ola

Thursday, February 14, 2008


W are going to interview two elementary schools in Lund on the 26 of febuary. If you have any questions you would like us to ask, or if you want to come with. Please Contact Martina at 0704-002311 or e-mail at martina.norrman@gmail.com

Wednesday, February 13, 2008

Comments on program

I've gone through all programs now and mailed you comments. If you haven't recieved any feedback, mail me again on ff@uid.dk and attach you program to be on the safe side.

Some general remarks:

I think most of you are on the right track and have interesting topics!

Be careful with your time and remember you've been researching water topics for 3 weeks. Try to make the site specific research as intense as possible. It's time to produce!

Try to always think in terms of presentation. Almost all programs have been plain text without images. From now on we need to communicate more in all products we finish!

Pin-up friday

This Friday we want you to present your material on the wall in the office. We want you to do this in form of at least 2 A3 posters including text, images, diagrams, sketches ... We don't expect layout masterpieces, but try to ask yourself how you can communicate your message without saying it in words. Even though you maybe work in groups doing research we want you all to present individually.

Deadline is friday 3PM. We will go through your work and then we meet monday afternoon and discuss more.

Questions? Mail me at ff@uid.dk

Saltholm Island future

We are making research about Saltholm Island future perspectives and we would like to ask you to help us. Please go to webpage http://s.plepe.googlepages.com where you can find information about Saltholm and please fill up our questionnaire on http://www.misterpoll.com/polls/324962
Thank you!

Kristina & Sandra

Meeting with Mårten Hammer

We have made an appointment with ecologist Mårten Hammer, who has worked with Höje å. We are going to meet him next wednesday. If you have any questions to him or if you want to join us, please contact us.

/Maria & Christina

Höje Å Group

We made contact with people working with Höjeåprojektet at Lund municipality. Waiting for answer, hopefully she will come and tell us about the project and answer our questions.
We will be at Alnarp tomorrow, and hope to be able to meet you there.
Fanny and Maria

Tuesday, February 12, 2008

Höje å group

Hello every body working with Höje å,
shall we meet some day somewhere?
Could be after Roland´s tour or maybe Thursday...please give sugestions:)

Digital maps of Höje å


There is some digital maps of Höje å area in "Lerbert": \\Lerbert\Kurser\WATERWORLD\Sonja

You can find there vector and raster maps and information about them in the folder called 'Document' (in swedish only). Four raster map pages are put together in file called 'map_höjeå'.



Towmorrow at 13:00 is a guided tour by Roland.
This is about the wetlands which were created in Alnarp some years ago.
He mentioned them in one of his previouse lecture.
The tour will be 1 1/2 hours long.
Meet infront of the Castel at 13:00.

Monday, February 11, 2008

schedual 12, 13, 14, 15

The new schedual is at the hompage.

Next UFUG meeting is Thuesday at 13.00 with Roland at the Castle.

Friday at 9 Daniel Ängmo comes to tell us about his experiences from the Connectivity 2006 project in São Paulo. Presentation "Social Architecture?"

Pin-up friday pm will focus on explaining the programs as simple grapics.

Keep contact with Fredrik by mail.

If you like to see Roland mail him to book an appointment.

Concerning design phase

The document

Sunday, February 10, 2008

Some pictures from the PinUp#3 snaks and drinks.

Friday, February 8, 2008

Monday 11th of February

What is happening next monday?


Some report about wetlands and Höje å:
and the summary of previous:

Thursday, February 7, 2008

During iscussions today...

...I had a really nice time. I think we might have some really interasting project idaes.

Some references that came up during the discussions were:

MVRDV movie Kampen Weir

Hundertwasser eco house in Vienna, The "Hundertwasserhaus Waldspirale" in Darmstadt
and organic farm Quixote Winery in Napa Valley.

Rikrit Tiravanija and François Roche/Stephanie Lavaux

IFLA world Congress

UiD homepage


Book review

Book review

Cool it
Björn Lomborg

In the book the author looks at the climate change discussion from a different point of view, maybe it is a little bit provocative.
I do think that it was refreshing to hear his side of the story.
Maybe we have blown up the climate thing a little bit too much?
How should we act to minimize it but at the same time cope with the other problems that we have in the world???

/// maja milk

diverse visionary green city

Site: Refshaleon or Saltholm

Diverse visionary green city,
( -Diverse: diverse design-vice aswell as population, user-vice, class vice -Visionary: to experiment and create something new,conceptual Green: sustainability through planlayout, materials and techniques aswell as in the literal sense: lots of green areas, climbing gardens, green roofs etc…)integration of the latest technical sustainable environmental innovations

-create a landmark to visually connect Sweden(Turning Torso) and Denmark(??)-strengthen the "region"

Guidelines, Methods:
-Research on the latest technical innovations within the field of environmentally, sustainable planning- (Literature: “Living systems”?)
- Research of current examples of sustainable “eco-cities”: Dongtan, Foster and Partners etc.
- Try to implement the positive qualities of Christiania such as: possibilities for individual expression, diversity, something “different”
-The concept of space in-between, non-plan in-mind: leave spaces for alternative uses..(literature: “spaces of uncertainty", "non-plan”)
-Urban exploration: leave “traces” and remnants of former uses, contrasts between old and new
-Space Syntax theory: the theoretical base for decisions regarding the placement of areas, streets where you want a higher number of people. Commercial streets , public parks, waterfront pedestrian walks, playgrounds etc….
-Cullen´s ideas on creating a diverse “humane” built environment


8 Pages

When you have completed your 8 pages from your presentation, please PDF the file and place it in the 8 Pages folder; under Lerbert-WATERWORLD.

Saltholm-Integrated Design

I am going to work with Saltholm; focusing on the integration of built and natural landscapes.

I will use a method of non-planning to achieve my goal to plan Saltholm for non-planning.

Through the investigation of both the positive and negetive impacts of developing the island; through self sufficient, sustainable community design.

I plan to prepair a final design for Saltholm after researching and roleplaying possible senerios for the island.



Article published in ’New Society Magazine;’ March 20th, 1969

Non-Plan: an experiment in freedom

Written by: Paul Barker, Peter Hall, and co-contributors Reyner Banham, and Cedric Price

Paul Barker and Peter Halls idea: ’could things be any worse if there was no planning at all?’

From this they came up with the term: Non-Plan

They consider such questions and thoughts throughout the article as:

’Why not have the courage, where practical, to let people shape their own environments?’

’Why don’t we dare trust the choices that would evolve if we let them?’

’Why do people seem so afraid of freedom?’

The subsequent chapters presented throughout the book are essays and
articles alike which were written in response to this idea of ’Non-Plan.’

There were reflections on the role the government has played in society in response to these ideas; as told by Barry Curtis in ’The Heart of the City’

As well as outrageous ideas collaborated by Hadas Steiner in ’Off the Map;’
and a look at what has happened since the release of this article by Johnathan Hughes in ’After Non-Plan’

-Is freedom determined by power?
-Is freedom lost when there is planning?
-We fight for freedom but at the same time we
are afraid of it?
-Why has it become so hard to accept change?

-Who has the power to create freedom?
-Does power regulate planning?
-Do people give up their freedom to power?
-Has power become such an integrated part
of society that we cannot live without it?
-Does power give people the right to create

-Is planning controlled by power?
-Does freedom exist with planning?
-Can planning be the voice of everyone or
does there have to be a compromise?

Please feel free to contribute further to this blogg. If you want to read the book, we suggest starting with chapter 1; Paul Barker: Thinking the Unthinkable and chapter 14; Jonathan Hughes: After Non-Plan, to give a basic understanding of the Non-Plan idea.
//Fanny and Adam

Wednesday, February 6, 2008


Check out the BLDGBLOG!

Monday, February 4, 2008

Höje å excursion 5th of feb

We visit Höje å area.
From Hertz Malmö C 08.30, from Alnarp Bobos 08.45.
Bring lunch and boots/cloths.

Höje å projektet slut rapport och Höje å homepage from Ekologgruppen

Thursday, January 31, 2008

FINAL PIN-UP 2008/02/01 - Research

Sonja Semeri, Duane de Witt
Water and persons – Made Water Works and living on water

Monika Kokoszka, Ola Gustafsson
Water and Man I – Man Made Water Works

Dagmar Weigel, Maja Rytorp
Visionary Maritime/Hydrological Technologies

10.15-10.40 COFFEE

Sandra Plêpe, Daniel Mathiasson
Water as Energy Source. Waterpower, Wave Energy

Jenna Buchko
Global Climate Research. UN reports

Kristina Glovecka, Maria Brink
Basic Hydrology

11.55-13.00 LUNCH

Berenike Lemper Maria Barrdahl
Water and Man II – living on water

Adam Rogers, Fanny Wahlqvist
Water Systems in the O. Mapping

Liene Rikmane, Martina Norrman
Oresund and the Baltic. Impacts of the Eco System

14.15-14.40 COFFEE

Angela Nonkes, Camilla Engström
Swedish/Canadian/Dutch Water Governance Investigation
Transparent solar panels

Sylvanus Elobile, Mohammad Ansari, Garret Robinson, Xristina Vonikopoulou
Examples from my home town

15.45-16.00 Food and drinks are introduced
16.00-17.00 DISCUSSIONS

Wednesday, January 30, 2008

Monday, January 28, 2008

Lecture wednesday

Hi! A reminder: I give a lecture wednesday 09.00 in room 107: UiD Casebook. It´s about planning projects from my own practice. Spread the word.

People living on water

We would like you to answer the questions we handed out friday and it would be nice if we could have them back until wendnesday. If you don´t see us, just leave them on the table in 160.
If you haven´t got the quetions, there are still some also in 160.
Thank you
Berenike and Maria


Öresund watersystems presentation pin-up 1&2.

Adam & Fanny

Sunday, January 27, 2008

Photos from excursion

I put some photos from our excursion in my Picasa-site.
Have a look: http://picasaweb.google.fi/sonjis1/ExcursionMalmCopenhagen222312008


Friday, January 25, 2008

Pinup 1 - Basic hydrology

During the first week of research we worked with basic hydrology. For our own research we choosed to work with Coastal and offshore development in Europe.

Kristina and Maria

Monday, January 21, 2008

pinup#1 - Visionary Maritime and hydrological technologies

last week we have been searching for various new inventions dealing with water (see pdf). so now we are working on a kind of "invention catalogue", consisting of different categories.
for our own research, we will work on the topic "living under water"

maja & dagmar

study trip

The increasing use of ethanol may lead to a larger amount of malnutrition. In Africa the number of malnutrited children risk to increase with up to 4%.
Water in the Netherlands: http://www.waterland.net/

Who controls the water in Canada: http://www.ec.gc.ca/

Vattenfall has interesting info. under the headline Energikunskap: http://www.vattenfall.se/ (unfortunately in Swedish though)

Camilla and Angela

Pinup 1 - Water as Energy Source. Waterpower, Wave Energy

About water research:
We divided our research in 3 parts:
  1. Use of water in history
  2. Water and meaning of it in Öresund
  3. Future for water as energy source

More info in PDF file attached!p>

Own research:

Future energy sources for Öresund - wind power or water energy, or hybrid of both!

Daniel and Sandra

Friday, January 18, 2008

Peninsula europe

Peninsula Europe is an art project by Newton Harrison and Helen Mayer Harrison members of the Greenmuseum and are among the leading pioneers of the eco-art movement.

ISU and more links

Visit ISU the Malmö Sustainable Institute,
Damanco and K21.

UN Water for life projekt involving Jay-Z.

Wood workshop

To use the machines in our wood workshop you need a "driver's license".
The design course has some places (4, I think!) left at their info session this afternoon 13.00 you are welcome to attend.

Probably there will be new possibilities Thursday 24th or 31st of Jan.

Thursday, January 17, 2008

Links to follow

These are some sites that could be interesting to visit:

Oresund links at last years hompage

This is the link to the hompage of laste year.

If you look at link there are several about the Oresund region:










Wednesday, January 16, 2008

about water

i found an interesting web page, that talks about many different things connected to water..
hope it hepls anyone:)

this is another more related to the Al Gore movie..i think its quite interesting, the "responses to change" button is nice
see you

under water hotel

today I found a project for an under water hotel in dubai. I'm just not sure if it's really going to be built...

Pin-up Friday - Schedule

This is the schedule for Friday's pin-up. As you can see it's pretty tight, so please be there when you should.

13.00 – 13.20
Jenna Buchko, Karin Ahlberg
Global Climate Research. UN reports

13.20 – 13.40
Glovecka Kristina Maria Brink
Basic Hydrology

13.40 – 14.00
Kokoszka Monika, Ola Gustafsson
Water and Man I – Man Made Water Works

14.20 – 14.40
Lemper Berenike, Tarla Johansson
Water and Man II – living on water

14.40 – 15.00
Nonkes Angela, Camilla Engström
Swedish Water Governance Investigation

15.00 – 15.20
Plêpe Sandra, Daniel Mathiasson
Water as Energy Source. Waterpower, Wave Energy

15.40 – 16.00
Rikmane Liene, Martina Norrman
Oresund and the Baltic. Impacts of the Eco System

16.00 – 16.20
Rogers Adam, Fanny Wahlqvist
Water Systems in the O. Mapping

16.20 – 16.40
Weigel Dagmar, Maja Rytorp
Visionary Maritime/Hydrological Technologies

16.40 – 17.00
Sonja Semeri, Duane de Witt
Water and persons – Made Water Works and living on water

Check out this website!

Hi everybody! I just found this site with information about Öresund. Check it out: http://www.oresundsvand.dk. /Maria

Tuesday, January 15, 2008

Research groupes

- Persons and topics.

New schedule

- Schedule uppdated 15th of jan.



Lerbert is a folder at the University network where we have some space for temporary storage.
We have no safety back up at Lerbert, and the files are available for everyone connected to the network.

To find Lerbert you use the network search function. Type Lerbert in the “Search for files and folders”, search the whole network (ad).

We have a folder “WATERWORLD” at \\Lerbert\Kurser\WATERWORLD.
(Last year course is called o-vision.)

GIS data I found at \\Lerbert\Kurser\WATERWORLD\Data\GIS DATA.

We are in contact with the Danish university, KVL, and hopefully we'll soon have information covering the Oresund region.

You can find some maps at the "landskapet som resurs" project.

Wednesday, January 9, 2008

welcome to the oresund - W A T E R W O R L D blog!

This is the blog for the WATERWORLD -landscape planning for sustainable development project.

We will use the blog as a communication tool and a storage/archive during the course.

Post all research material, links and "pin-up" material, be brief or write a novel, but make sure you frequently interract with the persons involved in this project. Let the blog be the stage performing your thinking.

Information will also be posted at the official hompage of the course.
And in the document "planning with water in mind", the description of the course.

See You,